This small treatise is about the tremendous matters from the fundamentals of islam and it is al-aqeedah, the creed and belief. The scholars give great importance to these brief works, authoring them and exerting themselves to shorten and refine them. These brief works are foundation for the students of knowledge, these are paths which lead to the longer and deep studies of detailed work.
بسم اللہ الرحمان الرحيم
In the name of Allah al-Rahman al-Raheem – شُروع اَللہ کے نام سے جو بڑا مہر بان نہايت رحم والا ہے
The Author Rahimahullah mentioned the Basmalah: “بسم اللہ الرحمان الرحيم ” at the start of his Risalat/treatise, following the example of Book of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, since the first thing which you see in the mushaf (the printed copy of Quran) and before every surah of it starts with “In the Name of Allah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy“. The evidence for mentioning the Basmalah at the beginning of letters, speeches etc is:
- The Quran begins with the Basmalah, so in this is a following of the Quran.
- The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam began his letters with the Basmalat and also Prophet Sulayman alayhissalam began his letter to the Queen of Saba’a with Basmalat.
Meaning: “Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it reads: ‘In the name of Allah, al-Rahman, al-Raheem’
In the Arabic language, “Bismisllah” means that it is only in His name this is written, and not in the name of anyone else alongside Him. And by this, Barakat and Help are sought from Allah for the action.
As for “ الرحمان الرحيم” al-Rahman al-Raheem, then it is derived from the word “رحمتہ” Rahmat meaning Mercy. So what is the difference between the two?
Al-Rahman is the one who is characterized with the Sifat of vast Rahmat which encompasses all things. No one else can be described or called by this name. Eg: It is not allowed to say “Zaid is Rahman”۔
Al Raheem is the One whose Rahmat reaches whom He wills from His slaves. So the first one has to do with Sifat and the second one is to do with His Fi’ul (actions). This name can be used for other than Allah. Eg: It is allowed to be said “Zaid is Raheem”. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam was described with this name:
Meaning: “There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful” (Surah Tawbah : 128)
So therefore, it is tremdous preface for speech, books and letters, a person seeks the aid and blessings of Allah in the beginning, by means of His name, who is the Perfect and Most High.
HOW TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE:
The risalat is starting with the command of Knowledge:
اعلم رحمك الله “Know – May Allah have mercy on you”
جان لو، رحم کرے تم پر اللہ
The word “اعلم” is a command to seek knowledge means “learn” and this shows the importance the Sheikh gave to knowledge. The Quran was also first revealed “اقرأ” Meaning: “Read” which is also an inciting and urging to attain knowledge and learn. Similarly Allah ordered “فاعلم” Meaning: “so know!” And this was revealed in Medina which means the command here is to attain knowledge after knowledge. The Sheikh is addressing the student of knowledge, but that which is coming in the Risalat contains that which are fard on every single Mukallaf (Mature and sane) even the Jinn, as Allah said: َ
Meaning: “And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” (Surah Adh-dhariyat: 56)
Knowledge is to comprehend something in a manner that is in accordance with reality and its opposite is ignorance; that is contrary to the actual reality.
Among the other benefits of the word”اعلم” is that it grabs the attention of the reader and makes him alert and ready to understand what the author is going to give him of knowledge. In addition to that, it directs attention to the importance of what is coming ahead. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself used the same techniques while teaching. For example he said to Ibn Abbas:
“واعلم أن األامة لو اجتمعت على أن ينفعوك بشيء َلم ينفعوك إَّلا بشيئ قد كتبه اللہ لك “
Meaning: “And know that even if the entire nation gathers to benefit you with something, they will not benefit you with anything except that which Allah has already written for you.” (Sunan al-Tirimizi and graded Sahih by al-Albani)
Here there is the grabbing of attention from the listener. And there are other examples to this. So in summary, the word “اعلم” “Know!” is a command to seek knowledge and the benefits it achieves is that it grabs the attention of the reader and makes him attentive to the knowledge which is coming ahead and also it hints to the importance of the content of the text.
علم سیکھنے، یاد کرنے، پڑھنے اور پڑھانے سے آتا ہے۔ نافع علم وہ ھے. جو انسان کو عمل پر اُبھارے۔ سورتہ فاتحہ میں بھی ہم روزانہ نماز میں یہی دعا کرتے ہیں کہ اللہ ہمیں اُن لوگوں کا راستہ دیکھاے، جنھوں نے علم حاصل کیا اور پھر عمل کا راستہ اختیار کیا۔ علم پر عمل نہ کرنے والوں پر اللہ کا غضب ہوا یا وہ راستے بھٹک گئے
MANNERS OF A TEACHER:
Now we begin with the word “رحمك الله” means “May Allah have mercy on you“. This is a dua from the teacher to the student and this is how the basis of the relation between the two is supposed to be. And bringing the word Rahmat (Mercy) next to the command to seek knowledge shows the deep understanding of the Sheikh (author of book) that the basis of the knowledge is Rahmat and its result is Rahmat in this world and its goal is Rahmat in the Hereafter. And the Sheikh understood that this knowledge cannot be taught except with Rahmat and Lutf (softness and lightness) between the teacher and the student. And the evidence for this is:
Meaning: “So by mercy from Allah , [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah . Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him]”. (Surah Al-e-Imran : 159)
So this shows kindness of a teacher towards his students and that one should start with good and fine speech, with righteous supplication, that will effect student to turn to the teacher in attentive manner. So, whoever commands towards Allah and forbid from the evils, should not use stern words, always use gentle words in speech, supplicate and compliment the listener or student with mild words because this is more likely to bring about acceptance.
“رحمك الله” “May Allah have mercy on you” here also means May Allah forgive you for your past sins and safeguard you from sins and support you in goodness in the future. When the word Rahmat and Maghfirat are mentioned in the same context, Rahmat means safeguarding from sins and support and goodness in the future and Maghfirat means forgiveness for the past sins. But when Rahmat alone is mentioned (as in this case) it includes that which was done in the past and also being safeguarded from sins in the future.
علم سیکھاتے ہوئے اُْستاد کا رویہ نرمی کا ہو، تا کہ استاد اور شاگرد کے درمیان اعتماد قائم ہو سکے۔ آغاذ دعا سے کریں، اسطرح اللہ کی مدد اور رحمت بھی شامل ہو جائےگی۔
Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah
Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah