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Here the author, rahimahullaah,  begins to quote evidences for the types of worship which he mentioned in his saying: “And the types of worship which Allaah commanded, such as Islaam, eemaan  and ihsaan,  and from that is supplication (du’aa)…”  So he began by mentioning the evidences for supplication/invocation (du’aa),  and the proofs for Islaam, eemaan and ihsaan  in detail will follow, if Allah wills.

In the hadeeth there occurs:

الدُعَاءُ مُخُّ الْعِبَادَة

“Invocation/Du’aa  is the core of worship”[1]

Mukh (مخ) literally means brain in Arabic. Du’aa is the brain of worship.

Your brain is your core so when you use it in a context like this, it means not the literal brain of course, but the core of something. Here it means if there is no Du’aa in your Ibaadah, then the core of your Ibaadah is missing.

It must be noted that du’aa  is of two types:

(i) Supplication, when a request is made (du ‘aa-u mas’alah)  and, (ii) invocation through worship (du’aa-u Ibaadah).

Du ‘aa-u mas’alah:

So supplication is to request one’s needs, and is worship when the servant requests that from his Lord. This is because it involves showing one’s poverty before Allah, the Most High, and ones need to turn to Him, and ones certain faith that He is the one having full power, the Most Generous, the one who gives bounteously and is Most Merciful. Seeking ones needs from someone else from the creation is permissible if the one to whom the request is made is able to hear and understand it, and has the power to respond to it, like the saying: ‘O so and so give me food.’ But whoever asks a dead person or someone who is absent for that, then he is a mushrik,  since the deceased or the absent cannot possibly do that. So in such a case his supplicating to them shows that he believes that they have some control over the creation, and he is therefore a mushrik.

Du’aa-u Ibaadah:

As for invocation through worship, then it is that the person does an act of worship seeking reward and fearing punishment, and this is not correct unless directed to Allaah alone. To direct this to anyone else besides Allaah is major shirk  which takes a person out of the Religion and he falls under the threat in the Saying of Allah, the Most High,

وقال ربكم ادعوني استجب لكم ان الذين يستكبرون عن عبادتي سيدخلون جهنم داخرين

“Your Lord says: O people, invoke Me and supplicate to Me making your worship sincerely for Me alone, and I will answer you, and pardon you and have mercy upon you. Indeed those who disdain to worship Me alone will enter Hell-Fire in disgrace.”  

اور تمہارے پروردگار نے کہا ہے کہ تم مجھ سے دعا کرو میں تمہاری (دعا) قبول کروں گا۔ جو لوگ میری عبادت سے ازراہ تکبر کتراتے ہیں۔ عنقریب جہنم میں ذلیل ہو کر داخل ہوں گے

[Soorah Ghaafir (40):60]

So the noble Aayah  proves that invocation/supplication (du’aa)  is worship, and if that were not the case it would not be said “those who disdain to worship Me alone….”  So whoever called upon anyone besides Allah, the Mighty & Majestic, requesting something which none but Allah has power over, then he is a mushrik (one who worships others besides Allah), an unbeliever (kaafir),  whether the one he calls upon is living or dead.

[1] Translator’s note: The hadeeth is reported with this wording by at-Tirmidhee and declared weak (da’eef)  by Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee in al-Mishkaat  (no. 2331) due to the weakness of one of its narrators, Ibn Lahee’ah. Imaam Ahmad and the four Sunan  report an authentic hadeeth  with the wording: “Invocation is Worship.”  (Declared authentic {saheeh)  by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul’Jaami’  (no. 3407)).

Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha


Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen




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