CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (Al-INAABAH, AL-ISTI’AANAH)

WHAT IS TURNING REPENTANTLY (Al-Inaabah)?

It is to turn to Allaah, the Most High, in obedience, and avoiding disobedience to Him, and its meaning is close to that of repentance (tawbah),  except that it is more subtle in meaning, and conveys the sense of dependance upon Allaah and fleeing for refuge to Him, and it cannot be except for Allaah, the Most High.

Islaam as prescribed and required of us in the Sharee’ah  and that is to submit to the laws and commandments of Allaah. This is because submission to Allaah, the Most High, is of two types:

(i) Submission of all the creation, which is to submit to whatever He has decreed should exist and occur in the creation about which the creation has no choice. So this is general and covers everyone in the heavens and the earth, the Believers and the unbelievers, the righteous and the wicked. No one can possibly disdain and depart from this.

The evidence for it is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

أَفَغَيْرَ دِينِ اللَّهِ يَبْغُونَ وَلَهُ أَسْلَمَ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ

“And to Him everyone in the heavens and the earth submit, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him you will all be returned.” 

(Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):83)

(ii) Submission to the laws and prescriptions of Islam: and this is to submit in obedience. This is particular to those who are obedient to Allaah, the Messengers and those who follow them upon good. The evidences for this in the Quran are many, and from them is the Aayah  mentioned below :

وَأَنِـيبُواْ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُواْ لَهُ

So turn, O you people, repentantly and obediently to your Lord, and submit obediently to Him”

(Soorah az-Zumar (39): 54)

WHAT IS AID AND ASSISTANCE (Al-Isti’aanah)?

Al-Isti’aanah means seeking aid and assistance, with regard to everyday matters which people are able to do, there is no harm in this because it is in co-operation upon righteousness and dutifulness to Allah. It is of various types:

(i) Appealing for aid and assistance from Allaah – this is an appeal for aid and assistance that comprises complete humility of the servant before his Lord, and to submit and entrust the affair to Him, and to be certain that He is fully sufficient for him. This is not to be except for Allaah, the Most High, alone, and the evidence is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

“O Allaah You alone we worship, and to You alone we appeal for aid.” 

(Soorah al-Faatihah (1):5)

The fact that this is to be for Allaah, the Most High, alone is shown by the fact that He mentions the word upon which the verb acts before the verb itself, and according to the principles of grammar of the Arabic language, in which the Qur’aan came down, bringing forward that which usually comes afterwards indicates restriction and particularisation. So directing this type to other than Allaah, the Most High, is shirk which takes a person out of the Religion.

(ii) Seeking the help of a person from the creation, in something which he is capable of helping in. Then this will be in accordance with the action in which help is sought. If it is a good action then it is permissible for the person to seek help upon it, and prescribed for a person to help in that, as Allaah, the Most High, says,

وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلاَ تَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ آلْعِقَابِ

“Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa, but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is severe in punishment.” 

(Soorah al- Maa’idah (5):2)

If it is a sinful thing, then it is forbidden for the person doing it and for the one who assists, as Allaah, the Most High, says,

If it is something permissible, then it is allowed for the person to seek help and to be assisted, and the one who is helping may be rewarded for kind treatment and thus it becomes something prescribed for him as Allaah, the Most High says,

وَأَحْسِنُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“And do good, indeed Allaah loves those who do good.” 

(Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 195)

(iii) Seeking the help of a person from the creation who is alive and present, except that it is something which he is incapable of, then this is futile and useless. For example that he seeks the help of a weak person in order to carry something very heavy.

(iv) Seeking the aid of any deceased person, or the aid of the living in a matter of the hidden and unseen, which they cannot reach. Then this is shirk  since it will only be done by a person who believes that those whose help he seeks have some hidden control over the creation.

(v) Seeking help by performing deeds that are beloved to Allaah, the Most High. This is something that is prescribed due to the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

وَاسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَوةِ

“And seek assistance through patience and Prayer.” 

(Soorah al-Baqarah (2):45)

The author, rahimahullaah,  uses as evidence for the first type the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

“O Allaah You alone we worship, and to You alone we appeal for aid.” 

(Soorah al-Faatihah (1):5)


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

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CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (AR-RAGHBAH, AR-RAHBAH, AL-KHUSHOO, AL-KHASHYAH)

WHAT IS FERVENT DESIRE (Ar-Raghbah) ? 

It is the love and desire to reach that which is beloved. The literal meaning of Fervent is to seek something with the intense desire, this is an adjective which is characterized by extreme emotions.

 دنیاوی امور کیلیئے پسندیدہ چیز تک پہنچنے کی محبت کو رغھبت کہتے ہیں۔ دینی لحاظ سے اللہ کی رضا، اُسکی خوشنودی اور اُسکا دیدار چاہنا ہے۔

WHAT IS DREAD (Ar-Rahbah) ?

It is the fear which causes one to flee away from the cause of fear and is accompanied by action. So it is feeling of fear but it can also be the desire to avoid something. For example, many people feel dread at the very thought of speaking in front of an audience. As a verb, dread means “to fear or not want something to happen,” like students who did not study and as a result, dread getting their graded tests back.

الرھبة ایسا خوف جو عمل سے جُڑا ہو، مثلاً مُردے کے خوف سے اُسکے جنازے میں شرکت نہ کرنا کہ یہ مُردہ مجھے مار دے گا۔ کسی بیوہ عورت کو ہر کام سے دور رکھنا کہ اِسکی وجہ سے دوسری کوئی عورت بیوہ ہو جائے گی۔

WHAT IS HUMILITY (Al-Khushoo) ?

Al-Khushoo’ is humility and submissiveness before the Greatness of Allaah, such that the person submits to whatever Allaah has pre-decreed and what He has ordained and commanded. This humility should be with lack of ego.

الخشوع ایسا کوف جسمیں تعظیم اور عزت شامل ہو۔ علم والا اور باعمل اِنسان اپنے رب کے سامنے ایسا خوف رکھتا ہے اور یہ انبیا کی صفات میں سے ہے کہ بندہ اپنے رب کے حضور عاجزی اِختیار کرے۔

EVIDENCES FROM QURAN:

The evidence for the fervent desire (ar-raghbah), dread (ar-rahbah) and reverence and humility (al-khushoo’) is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يُسَارِعُونَ فِى الْخَيْرَتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَباً وَرَهَباً وَكَانُواْ لَنَا خـشِعِينَ

“They used to hasten to acts of devotion and obedience to Allaah, and they used to worship Allaah upon love and desire, and upon fear, and were reverent and humble before Allaah”

(Surah An’mbiyaa: 90)

In this noble Aayah,  Allaah, the Most High, describes the most loyal and sincere of His servants as worshipping Allaah, the Most High, upon raghbah  and rahbah,  whist being humble and submissive to Him. The du’aa  (invocation) here covers both invoking Allaah through acts of worship, and supplication. So they call upon Allaah out of earnest desire for what is with Him, and hoping for His reward, whilst also fearing His punishment as a result of their sins. So the Believer should hasten to Allaah, the Most High, upon fear and earnest desire; with regard to actions of obedience his hope and earnest desire should predominate, so that he is keen to perform them and hopes that they will be accepted; and with regard to whenever he thinks of committing a sin, then fear should predominate so that he will flee away from doing it and be saved from its consequent punishment.

Some scholars say that the aspect of hope should predominate when a person is ill, and the aspect of fear when he is well. They say this since a person who is ill feels subdued and weakened and it may be that his appointed time is near, so that he may die, and he should do so whilst thinking good of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. But when healthy he is energetic and has hope of remaining for a long time, and this may lead him to be exuberant and carefree, so fear should predominate in order to be safe from that. It is also said that the earnest hope and fear should be equal so that his hope does not lead him to feel safe from Allaah, and his fear does not cause him to despair of Allah’s mercy, since both of these are evil and cause a person’s destruction.

WHAT IS AWE (Al-Khashyah) ?

Awe (al-khashyah)  is fear founded upon knowledge of the greatness of the One whom he fears, and the complete and perfect Sovereignty and Dominion that is only of Allaah Subhana Watallah.  It is something more particular than fear, and the difference between it and fear will become clear by giving an example: If you fear someone, but you do not know whether he is able to catch you or not, then this is fear (khawf).  But when you fear someone and know that he is fully able to seize hold of you then that is fear/dread (khashyah).  With regard to speech about the rulings for each class of fear/dread, then it is the same as for what has already been said with regard to reverential fear (khawf).

EVIDENCES FROM QURAN:

The evidence for awe/dread (al-khashyah) is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

فَلاَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِى

” fear them not, but fear Me۔”

(Surah Al-Baqarah :150)

It means enemies cannot be the greatest danger for the Muslims, while impiety and having no awe of Allah is the real danger. So do not fear the doubts that the unjust, stubborn people raise specially about the matters of religion and fear Him Alone. Indeed, Allah Alone deserves to be feared.


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (AT’TAWAKUL)

WHAT IS TAWAKKUL?

Placing (tawakul) reliance upon something is to depend upon it; and placing reliance upon Allaah, the Most High, is to depend upon Allaah, the Most High, and to accept Him as being the One who suffices you in bringing whatever is beneficial to you and protecting you from whatever is harmful. This is from the completion of true Faith (eemaan) and is a sign of it, as He, the Most High, says,

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

“And put your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true Believers.”

[Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):23]

If the person is sincere in his reliance and trust in Allaah, the Most High, then Allaah, the Most High, will take care of whatever troubles or concerns him, as He, the Most High, says,

 وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ

“And whoever places his reliance and trust in Allaah then He will suffice him.”

[Soorah at-Talaaq (65):3]

Meaning that He will suffice him, then He sets the mind of the one who trusts in Him at rest with His Saying,

قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدْرًا

“Allaah will certainly bring about whatever He has decreed.”

[Soorah at-Talaaq (65):3]

TYPES OF TAWAKKUL?

So nothing at all can prevent Him from whatever He wills. Furthermore it should be known that placing reliance and trust is of different types:

(i) Trust and reliance upon Allaah, the Most High, is from the completion of eemaan, and one of the signs of its sincerity, it is obligatory since eemaan cannot be completed without it, and the proof has preceded.

(ii) Secret trust and dependence, such that he depends upon someone deceased to bring him some benefit or remove some harm, this is major shirk. This is because it will not occur except from a person who believes that this deceased person has some hidden control over the creation. There is no difference in this matter whether the deceased is a prophet, a pious person, or an evil enemy of Allaah, the Most High, who is worshipped by the people.

 شرکِ توکل یہ ہے کہ جو کسی بندے کے اِختیار میں نہیں اُس پر معاملہ چھوڑنا۔ یعنی اللہ کے بجائے بندے پر بھروسہ کرنا۔

(iii) Placing reliance upon someone else in the affairs, whilst feeling that he himself is of a low standing and the one he depends upon is therefore of higher standing, for example that he depends upon him to bring him sustenance and the like, then this is a type of lesser shirk due to the strong connection his heart forms towards him and his dependence upon him. But if he merely relied upon him being certain that he is just a means, and that Allaah, the Most High, is the One Who alone has the power to bring that about in His Hand, then there is no harm in that, since the one on whom he places reliance does have an effect in causing it to occur.

(iv) Relying upon someone else and allowing someone else to act on your behalf with regard to a matter where one is allowed to depute someone. This is something about which there is no harm, as shown by the evidence of the Book, the Sunnah and the consensus (ijmaa’). Ya’qoob A.S said to his sons:

“O my sons go back and seek news of Yoosuf and his brother.”

[Soorah Yoosuf (12):87]

Also the Prophet deputed men to take charge of collection and looking after the zakaat; he deputed people to establish and carry out the prescribed punishment; and deputed ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, to take charge of some of his sacrificial animals during the Farewell Pilgrimage, and to give their skins and covering sheets in charity, and to sacrifice the remainder of the hundred camels after he had sacrificed sixty three with his own hand. As for the consensus (ijmaa*) upon permissibility of this, then it is something known.

  کسی کو اپنا وکیل بنانا شرک نہیں، اپنے معاملات بندے کے حوالے کرنا توکیل کہلاتا ہے اور جسکے حوالے معاملا کیا جائے وہ وکیل کہلاتا ہے۔ مثلاً وکیلِ نکاح، مقدمہ میں اپنا ایک وکیل مقرر کرنا وغیرہ۔


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (Al-KHAUF, AR’RAJAA’)

What is Fear?

Fear is to be frightened and is a result of expecting something which will bring about destruction, harm or injury, and Allah, the one free of all imperfections and the Most High, forbade having fear of the allies of the Satan, and He commanded fear of Himself alone. Fear is of three types:

(i) Natural fear, طبعی خوف such as a person’s fear of predatory animals, fire, or drowning. This is something for which a person is not to be blamed. Allah, the Most High, said about Moosaa,

فاصبح في المدينة خائفا يترقب  

“So he entered in the morning in Pharaoh’s city in a state of fear, awaiting events.”

الغرض صبح کے وقت شہر میں ڈرتے ڈرتے داخل ہوئے

[Soorah al-Qasas (28): 18]

However if this fear is, as mentioned by the author, a cause of his leaving an obligation or doing something forbidden, then it is forbidden. Since whatever causes an obligation to be abandoned, or causes something forbidden to be done is itself forbidden (haraam).  The evidence here is the Saying of Allah, the Most High,

انما ذلكم الشيطان يخوف اولياءه فلا تخافوهم وخافون ان كنتم مؤمنين

“So do not fear them, but fear Me and beware of disobeying Me, if you are truly Believers.”

یہ (خوف دلانے والا) تو شیطان ہے جو اپنے دوستوں سے ڈراتا ہے تو اگر تم مومن ہو تو ان سے مت ڈرنا اور مجھ ہی سے ڈرتے رہنا

  [Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):175]

Furthermore fear of Allah, the Most High, is sometimes something praiseworthy, and is sometimes something that is not praiseworthy. It is praiseworthy when it prevents you from being disobedient to Allah, and causes you to fulfil the obligatory duties and to avoid what is forbidden. So if this goal is reached, then the heart settles and is at peace, and is dominated by joy at the blessings of Allah and hope for His reward. It is something that is not praiseworthy when it causes a person to despair of Allah’s Mercy and to give up hope altogether. In such a case the person will give up and may continue in sin due to the fact that he totally gives up hope.

(ii) Reverential fear,  that he fears something and takes that as his religion. This is to be for Allah, the Most High, alone. Directing such reverential fear to anyone other than Allah, the Most High, is major shirk.

(iii) Secret supernatural fear,  such as fearing someone buried in a grave, or a person thought to be pious, who is far away and cannot affect him, yet still he has secret fear for him. This is also mentioned by the scholars as being a case of shirk.

What is Hope and longing (Ar-rajaa’)?

حصول کی اُمید رکھنا It is that a person wishes for something that may be attained and is close, and it may be something that is far off but treated as being something close. This earnest hope which comprises humility and submission may not be directed except to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and directing it to anyone other than Allaah, the Most High, is shirk.  This shirk  will either be lesser shirk  or major shirk  depending upon the state of the heart of the person in this case. The author uses as evidence the Saying of Allah, the Most High,

اذ اوى الفتية الى الكهف فقالوا ربنا اتنا من لدنك رحمة وهيئ لنا من امرنا رشدا

“So whoever hopes to see His Lord and be rewarded by Him, then let him make his worship correct and make it purely and sincerely for Him; and let him not make any share of it for anyone other than Him.”

جب وہ جوان غار میں جا رہے تو کہنے لگے کہ اے ہمارے پروردگار ہم پر اپنے ہاں سے رحمت نازل فرما۔ اور ہمارے کام درستی (کے سامان) مہیا کر

[Soorah al-Kahf (18):11O] 

 طبعی الرِجاء تمع الشرک: کسی  سے اِیسی چیز کی خواہش یا تمع رکھنا جو دینا اُسکے اِختیار یا قدرت میں نہ ہو۔ شرک میں شامِل ہے۔

 طبعی الرِجاء تمع : کسی زندہ شخص کی چیزحاصل کرنے کی خواہش یا تمع رکھنا جو دینا اُسکے اِختیار میں ہو۔

Hope‘ which is praiseworthy is only that which is found in a person who acts in obedience to Allaah and hopes for reward from Him, or a person who repents from sin and hopes that his repentance is accepted. As for a person who hopes despite the fact that he does not act, then this is delusion and false hopes, and is something blameworthy.


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (AD’DUA)

bismillah2 copy

Here the author, rahimahullaah,  begins to quote evidences for the types of worship which he mentioned in his saying: “And the types of worship which Allaah commanded, such as Islaam, eemaan  and ihsaan,  and from that is supplication (du’aa)…”  So he began by mentioning the evidences for supplication/invocation (du’aa),  and the proofs for Islaam, eemaan and ihsaan  in detail will follow, if Allah wills.

In the hadeeth there occurs:

الدُعَاءُ مُخُّ الْعِبَادَة

“Invocation/Du’aa  is the core of worship”[1]

Mukh (مخ) literally means brain in Arabic. Du’aa is the brain of worship.

Your brain is your core so when you use it in a context like this, it means not the literal brain of course, but the core of something. Here it means if there is no Du’aa in your Ibaadah, then the core of your Ibaadah is missing.

It must be noted that du’aa  is of two types:

(i) Supplication, when a request is made (du ‘aa-u mas’alah)  and, (ii) invocation through worship (du’aa-u Ibaadah).

Du ‘aa-u mas’alah:

So supplication is to request one’s needs, and is worship when the servant requests that from his Lord. This is because it involves showing one’s poverty before Allah, the Most High, and ones need to turn to Him, and ones certain faith that He is the one having full power, the Most Generous, the one who gives bounteously and is Most Merciful. Seeking ones needs from someone else from the creation is permissible if the one to whom the request is made is able to hear and understand it, and has the power to respond to it, like the saying: ‘O so and so give me food.’ But whoever asks a dead person or someone who is absent for that, then he is a mushrik,  since the deceased or the absent cannot possibly do that. So in such a case his supplicating to them shows that he believes that they have some control over the creation, and he is therefore a mushrik.

Du’aa-u Ibaadah:

As for invocation through worship, then it is that the person does an act of worship seeking reward and fearing punishment, and this is not correct unless directed to Allaah alone. To direct this to anyone else besides Allaah is major shirk  which takes a person out of the Religion and he falls under the threat in the Saying of Allah, the Most High,

وقال ربكم ادعوني استجب لكم ان الذين يستكبرون عن عبادتي سيدخلون جهنم داخرين

“Your Lord says: O people, invoke Me and supplicate to Me making your worship sincerely for Me alone, and I will answer you, and pardon you and have mercy upon you. Indeed those who disdain to worship Me alone will enter Hell-Fire in disgrace.”  

اور تمہارے پروردگار نے کہا ہے کہ تم مجھ سے دعا کرو میں تمہاری (دعا) قبول کروں گا۔ جو لوگ میری عبادت سے ازراہ تکبر کتراتے ہیں۔ عنقریب جہنم میں ذلیل ہو کر داخل ہوں گے

[Soorah Ghaafir (40):60]

So the noble Aayah  proves that invocation/supplication (du’aa)  is worship, and if that were not the case it would not be said “those who disdain to worship Me alone….”  So whoever called upon anyone besides Allah, the Mighty & Majestic, requesting something which none but Allah has power over, then he is a mushrik (one who worships others besides Allah), an unbeliever (kaafir),  whether the one he calls upon is living or dead.


[1] Translator’s note: The hadeeth is reported with this wording by at-Tirmidhee and declared weak (da’eef)  by Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee in al-Mishkaat  (no. 2331) due to the weakness of one of its narrators, Ibn Lahee’ah. Imaam Ahmad and the four Sunan  report an authentic hadeeth  with the wording: “Invocation is Worship.”  (Declared authentic {saheeh)  by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul’Jaami’  (no. 3407)).

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1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (Proofs)

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Ibn Katheer, rahimahullaah, said: “The creator of these things is the One Who deserves to be worshipped.” All the types of worship which Allah commanded – like Islaam (submission and obedience to Allah), eemaan (true Belief comprising belief of the heart, speech of the tongue and action of the limbs), and ihsaan (perfection of worship), and from that is invocation/supplication (du’aa), reverential fear (khawf), hope and longing (rajaa), trust and reliance (tawakkul), fervent desire (raghbah), dread (rahbah), reverence and humility (khushoo’), awe (khashyah), turning repentantly (inaabah), appealing for aid and assistance (isti’aanah), seeking refuge (isti’aadhah), seeking deliverance and rescue (istighaathah), sacrificing (dhabfi), vows (nadhr) and the rest of the types of worship commanded by Allah, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allah, the Most High.

Having made clear that it is obligatory upon us to worship Allah, alone, giving no share of worship to anyone besides Allah, the author, rahimahullaah  goes on to explain some of the different types of worship. His saying And from it is ad’Dua ; he began with it because it is the greatest of the types of worship. 

The proof for this is the Saying of Him, the Most High:

وان المساجد لله فلا تدعوا مع الله احدا

 “And the places of Prayer are for Allah alone, so do not invoke anyone along with Allah”

اور یہ کہ مسجدیں (خاص) خدا کی ہیں تو خدا کے ساتھ کسی اور کی عبادت نہ کرو

[Soorah al-Jinn (72): 18]

Al-masaajid is the word that is used for the places where prostration is made and those places where prayer is performed. And the word Masaajid is also used for the seven parts of the body those are used for the prostration as it is mentioned in following hadith narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet (ﷺ) was ordered (by Allah) to prostrate on seven parts and not to tuck up the clothes or hair (while praying). Those parts are: the forehead (along with the tip of nose), both hands, both knees, and (toes of) both feet.

( Sahih al-Bukhari 809 – Kitab Ul Adhan ; To Prostate on Seven Bones)

Anyone who directs any part of that to anything besides Allaah, then he is a mushrik (associationist), an unbeliever (kaafir), and the proof is the Saying of Him, the Most High,

ومن يدع مع الله الها اخر لا برهان له به فانما حسابه عند ربه انه لا يفلح الكافرون

“And whoever worships along with Allaah any other object of worship has no proof for that; his reckoning will be with his Lord. Indeed the unbelievers will never prosper”  

اور جو شخص خدا کے ساتھ اور معبود کو پکارتا ہے جس کی اس کے پاس کچھ بھی سند نہیں تو اس کا حساب خدا ہی کے ہاں ہوگا۔ کچھ شک نہیں کہ کافر فلاح نہیں پائیں گے

[Soorah al-Mu’minoon (23):117]

The first Aayah  is a proof, since Allaah, the Most High, informs that the masaajid, which are either the places in which prostration (sujood)  is made (i.e. the places of Prayer), or the limbs which prostrate, are for Allah alone. Then He stated as a consequence of that is: so do not worship and prostrate to anything else along with Him.

The second Aayah  is a proof since Allah, the one free of all imperfections and the Most High, explains that whoever supplicates and invokes something else besides Allah is an unbeliever (kaafir),  because He says: “Indeed the unbelievers will never prosper.”  Furthermore His Saying “(They have) no proof for that  indicates that it is not possible for there to be any proof supporting worship of other gods. So this is a description to make the matter clear and manifest, and it is not a qualifying description meant to exclude that which is supported by proof. This is the case since it is not possible for there to be any proof allowing worship of anything along with Allah.

(Islaam, eemaan  and ihsaan  are already explained in previous post. We will continue types of worship with respect to Dua and its categories and Proofs in next post insha’Allah.)


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Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP

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Having made clear that it is obligatory upon us to worship Allah, alone, giving no share of worship to anyone besides Allah, the author, rahimahullaah  goes on to explain some of the different types of worship. So he said: “And all the types of worship… like Islaam, eemaan  and ihsaan.”

These three: Islaam, eemaan  and ihsaan  are the Religion (Deen) as occurs in the narration reported by Muslim from the hadeeth  of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu,  who said:

Whilst we were sitting with Allah’s Messenger one day, a man came having very white clothes and very black hair. No trace of having travelled could be seen upon him, and none of us knew him. So he sat down before the Prophet and joined his knees with his knees, and placed his palms upon his thighs and said: “O Muhammad, tell me about Islaam.” So Allah’s Messenger said: “Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; that you establish the Prayer; pay the zakaat; fast Ramadaan; and make pilgrimage (hajj) to the House if you are able to do so.” He said: “You have spoken correctly.” He (i.e. ‘Umar) said: ‘So we were amazed at how he asked, and then told him that he had spoken correctly. ‘He said: “Then tell me about eemaan,” He ﷺ said:It is that you have true faith in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and that you have true faith in pre-decree (alqadr), its good and its evil.  He said: “You have spoken correctly.” He said: “Then tell me about ihsaan.” He ﷺ said:It is that you worship Allah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, yet He certainly sees you.He said: “Then tell me about the Hour.” He ﷺ said:The one who is questioned about it knows no better than the one who is asking.He said: “Then tell me about the signs.” He ﷺ said: “That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, and that you will see the barefooted, naked, and destitute, shepherds competing in building tall buildings.”

Then he went off. Then he (i.e. the Prophet) remained for a long while, then he said:O ‘Umar, do you know who the questioner was? I said: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He ﷺ said:He was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you your Religion (Deen).””

Islaam: 

It means submission and obedience to Allah. Islam with its five pillars, the two testifications of faith, the establishment of Salah, giving the Zakat, fasting Ramadan and making Hajj to sacred house of Allah – these are all acts of worship which are related to wealth (maaliyah)  and body (ba’daniyah).

 ارکانِ خمسہ کی تعمیل کا نام اِسلام ہے۔ جسمیں شہادتین، نماز، زکٰوة، روزہ، حج شامل ہیں۔

Eemaan:

It is the true Belief comprising belief of the heart, speech of the tongue and action of the limbs. It has six pillars includes, emaan Bil’ah (Tawheed), emaan in His angels, in His holy Books, in His Messengers, and in the Last day and emaan in Al-Qadr (the pre-decree), the good of it and bad of it, this is worship of Heart.

ایمان میں چھ ارکان شامل ہیں۔ ایمان باللہ، فرشتون پر ایمان، آسمانی کتب، رُسل، اچھی اور بُری تقدیر اور موت اور حشر کے دِن پر ایمان لانا ضروری ہے۔ 

Al-Ihsaan:

It means the Perfection of worship, which is a single pillar. And it is that worship Allah that you are seeing Him, and even though you do not see him, then He certainly sees you. This is the highest type of the worship.

اِحسان سے مراد ایسے عبادت کرنا کہ جیسے تم اللہ کو دیکھ رہے ہو یا اِس بات کا یقین کہ وہ تمھیں دیکھ رہا ہے۔

So the Prophet ﷺ declared all of these things to be the Religion, and that is because they comprehend all of the Religion.

دین  = اِسلام  + ایمان اِحسان


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Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

PROOFS FOR ALLAH’S LORDSHIP & HIS SOLE RIGHT TO ALL WORSHIP

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These are proofs of Ruboobiyah (Lordship) and Illahiyah (Divinity and Right to Worship).

ومن اياته الليل والنهار والشمس والقمر لا تسجدوا للشمس ولا للقمر واسجدوا لله الذي خلقهن ان كنتم اياه تعبدون

And of His signs are the night and day and the sun and moon. Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostrate to Allah , who created them, if it should be Him that you worship.

اور رات اور دن اور سورج اور چاند اس کی نشانیوں میں سے ہیں۔ تم لوگ نہ تو سورج کو سجدہ کرو اور نہ چاند کو۔ بلکہ خدا ہی کو سجدہ کرو جس نے ان چیزوں کو پیدا کیا ہے اگر تم کو اس کی عبادت منظور ہے

(Surah Fussilat : 37)

It means that the day and the night are from the very clear signs and proofs of Allah, both in themselves and how they interchange. Also in the benefits which Allah has placed in them for the servants, and in their changing states. Likewise with regard to the sun and the moon which are signs both in themselves, and in the courses which they proceed upon. Also in their order and the benefit which they provide for the servants and the harm which that keeps away. Then Allah, the Most High, forbids the servants from prostrating to the sun or the moon, even though they are very great, yet they are not deserving of and do not have the right to be worshipped, since they are two created things, and the one Who is alone deserving and has the right to worship is Allah, the Most High, Who created them.

And from those things which He has created are the seven heavens. In Surah Talaq, it is said:

الله الذي خلق سبع سماوات ومن الارض مثلهن 

It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them.

خدا ہی تو ہے جس نے سات آسمان پیدا کئے اور ایسی ہی زمینیں۔

(Surah Talaq: 12)

Sheikh rahimullah is indicating to the Aayah:

ان ربكم الله الذي خلق السماوات والارض في ستة ايام ثم استوى على العرش يغشي الليل النهار يطلبه حثيثا والشمس والقمر والنجوم مسخرات بامره الا له الخلق والامر تبارك الله رب العالمين

“Your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then ascended upon the Throne. He causes the night to cover the day which it follows with haste; and the sun, the moon and stars are subservient and subject to His command. Certainly creation and commandment are His alone. Exalted is Allah the Lord of all creation.” 

کچھ شک نہیں کہ تمہارا پروردگار خدا ہی ہے جس نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو چھ دن میں پیدا کیا پھر عرش پر جا ٹھہرا۔ وہی رات کو دن کا لباس پہناتا ہے کہ وہ اس کے پیچھے دوڑتا چلا آتا ہے۔ اور اسی نے سورج اور چاند ستاروں کو پیدا کیا سب اس کے حکم کے مطابق کام میں لگے ہوئے ہیں۔ دیکھو سب مخلوق بھی اسی کی ہے اور حکم بھی (اسی کا ہے)۔ یہ خدا رب العالمین بڑی برکت والا ہے

(Surah al-A’raaf :54)

Meaning, from the proofs that Allah created the heavens and the earth is this Saying of Allah, the Most High which mentions the following signs of Allah:

(i) That Allah created these tremendous entities in six days, and if He wished He could have created them in a single moment, but instead from His wisdom He connected effects to their causes.

(ii) That He ascended upon the Throne, i.e. He ascended upon it in particular in a manner befitting His Majesty and Exaltedness, and this shows the perfection of His Kingship and Sovereignty.

(iii) That He causes the night to envelop and cover the day, so that it is like a garment which descends upon the light of day and covers it up.

(iv) That He has made the sun, the moon and the stars subservient to His command. He commands them as He wills for the benefit of the servants,

(v) That His Sovereignty comprehends everything and His Kingship is perfect, such that creation and commandment are for Him alone and for no one else,

(vi) That His Lordship comprehends all of creation.

So the Lord is the one who is worshipped, meaning that He is the One Who alone has the right to be worshipped, or that He is the One who is worshipped rightfully and deservedly, the meaning is not that everything which is worshipped is a Lord, since those gods which are worshipped besides Allah and which are taken as lords by those who worship them are not Lords. Rather the Lord (ar-Rabb)  is the creator, the sovereign, the one in control and command of all the affairs

 الذي جعل لكم الارض فراشا والسماء بناء وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرج به من الثمرات رزقا لكم فلا تجعلوا لله اندادا وانتم تعلمون- يا ايها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم والذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون

O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous – [He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].

لوگو! اپنے پروردگار کی عبات کرو جس نے تم کو اور تم سے پہلے لوگوں کو پیدا کیا تاکہ تم (اس کے عذاب سے) بچو . جس نے تمھارے لیے زمین کو بچھونا اور آسمان کو چھت بنایا اور آسمان سے مینہ برسا کر تمہارے کھانے کے لیے انواع و اقسام کے میوے پیدا کئے۔ پس کسی کو خدا کا ہمسر نہ بناؤ اور تم جانتے تو ہو

(Surah Al-Baqarah : 21-22)

Allah has made earth a resting place spread out for us, which we may use as such without any difficulty or hardship, just as a person sleeps upon his bed and the sky is a canopy for the people of the earth and it is a safe and protected ceiling, as Allah, the Most High, says:

“And We made the sky a raised ceiling, safe and guarded, yet the unbelievers turn away from considering the clear signs.”  (Surah al-Ambiyaa :32)

And He mentioned as:

“He sends down from above, from the clouds, pure water for you to drink, and which causes vegetation to grow which you allow your cattle to graze upon ” (Surah an-Nahl :10)

As a gift for you, and as stated in another Aayah,

“As provision for you and your cattle”  (Surah Abasa :32)

And do not set up rivals for the One Who created you, and created those before you, and made the earth a resting place for you and the sky a canopy, and sent down rain from the sky for you, and produced fruits and produce for you, so do not set up for Him rivals which you worship just as you worship Allah, or which you love just as you love Allah, since that is not fitting for you, neither according to sound intellect, nor according to Revelation. This address is to all people from the descendants of Adam: Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, commands them to worship Him alone, having no partner.

In addition you should attain taqwaa, and taqwaa  is to take protection from the punishment of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, by doing whatever He commands and keeping away from whatever He forbids.


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Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

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Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – THE SIGNS OF ALLAH (PART 3)

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Signs (Aayaat  plural of Aayah)  are that which indicate something and make it clear. Then the signs of Allah, the Most High, are of two types: signs in creation, and signs in His Revealed way (Sharee’ah). 

The signs in creation are those things which He created, and the signs in His Revealed way are what is found in His Revelation, which Allah sent down to His messengers. So the saying of the author, rahimahullaah,‘through His signs and those things which He has created‘ is an example of mentioning something particular after that which is general. So therefore, the aayaat are divided into three categories:

al-Aayaatul-Burhaaniyyah (evidential signs):

These are the miracles that occurred at the hands of the Messengers and Prophets, such as the miracles that occurred at the hand of Moosaa (’alayhis-salaam) including the clear aayaat. From them is the splitting of the sea, from them is the sticks, from them is the blood, the frogs, lice and locusts which Allah the Mighty and Majestic informed about in Sooratul-A’raaf; all of them are miracles.

And reviving the dead by the permission of Allah are also miracles, and whatever emanated from our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) from the numerous miracles, such as the splitting of the moon, the glorification by the pebbles in front of him, the water gushing forth, the submission of the two trees to him, the rock sending salutations upon him and other than that from whatever has been confirmed from the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) from the miracles.

al-Aayaatul-Sharee’ah (Qur’aanic signs):

These are whatever Allaah the Blessed and Exalted sent down upon His Messengers from His speech, from that is the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms, the Furqaan (Qur‘aan) and the scriptures of Ibraaheem and Moosaa and other than that from what Allah has left from His knowledge. All of this enters into the phrase ‘His aayaat.’

al-Aayaatul-Kawniyyah (universal signs):

That is, then say, ‘By His universal signs.’ Therefore, observing the universe proves the greatness of this creation. So it is not possible that this universe came into being all of a sudden, nor is it possible that it was produced by something from the created beings, nor it is possible that the creation created itself. All of that is self-delusion. Therefore, the only possibility which remains is that universe which is witnessed and which is from the great aayaat is an evidence for the existence of al-Khaaliq (the Creator) the Glorified and Exalted. And the Creator is Allah alone.

And the meaning of that is this world with its heavens, its earth and whatever is in between them. All of these are from Allah’s signs which prove His complete and perfect Power, and complete and perfect wisdom. So the sun is one of Allah’s signs, in its wonderful and well-ordered course which it has followed since Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, created it, and which it will follow until Allah, the Most High, grants that the universe is destroyed. So this is its appointed course, as Allah, the Most High, says,

“And the sun proceeds upon its fixed course, (for a term appointed) that is the decree of the All-Mighty, the All Wise.”

 [Soorah Yaa Seen (36):38]

Its size and its effects are from the signs of Allah. As for its size, then it is tremendously great; and as for its effects, then it produces benefit for our bodies, for the trees, the rivers, the oceans and other things besides. So if we consider the sun,this great sign, and the great distance that there is between us and it, yet despite this we feel its great heat. Then consider the light it produces which saves the people huge amounts of wealth in the daylight hours when they have no need of other sources of light, so it is indeed a very great sign, and most people perceive only very few of the signs. Likewise the moon is also from the signs of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, and He decreed for it measured stations. [1] Each night it has its particular station,

“We have prescribed measured phases for the moon till it returns like an old withered palm-stalk.” 

[Soorah Yaa Seen (36):39]

So whichever the case then knowledge of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, is arrived at through His signs in the creation, the tremendous things contained therein which are wondrous creations and clear proofs of perfect wisdom; and likewise through the signs in His Revealed way, and the justice to be seen in it and how it comprises all that is beneficial and repels all that is corrupt. ‘And in everything there is a sign for Him, Proving that He is One.’


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Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

[1] Extracted from  Saaluf- Us- Saalih.com with some modifications

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

Ibadah with Tawheed (Part 1) – (Part 2)

FOURTH CHAPTER OF BOOK:

 Introduction to 3 Fundamental Principles

First Principle ( WHO IS YOUR LORD) – Part 1

First Principle ( Proof) – Part 2

First Principle – Signs of Allah – Part 3

CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – PROOF (PART 2)

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The author, rahimahullaah,  presents as proof for the fact that Allah, the one free of all imperfections and the Most High, is the one who nurtures and sustains all of creation, the Saying of Allah, the Most High: “All praise is for Allah  meaning that description with the attributes of perfection, majesty and greatness are for Allah, the Most High, alone.

The Lord of all creation  meaning that He is the one who nurtured and sustained them with His blessings, and that He is their creator and their owner and Sovereign-Lord, and that He is the one Who controls their affairs as He, the Mighty and Majestic, wishes. So no-one can say that I have Lord besides the Lord of all creation. This is the proof of Ruboobiya (Lordship) of Allah subhana’watalah. He is the only one Who deserves worship and this nullifies the worship of others.

The creation (al-‘Aalam:  that by which something is known) is so called because they are a sign for their Creator, their sovereign Lord. So everything contains a sign showing that Allah is one, and I am one of the creation, and my Lord has made it obligatory upon me that I should worship Him alone.

اياك نعبد واياك نستعين

It is You we worship and You we ask for help.

اے پروردگار) ہم تیری ہی عبادت کرتے ہیں اور تجھ ہی سے مدد مانگتے ہیں)

(Surah Al-Fatiha : 5)

This ayah indicates the restriction because the fact that the governed word is brought forward Iyyaka and the governing verb is put back. So “You” we worship is different to “we worship You“, because saying “we worship” is merely affirmation. However, “You, we worship” includes negation and affirmation, meaning we do not worship anyone else besides You. And worship will not be correct except with negation and affirmation and Laillaha’illalah includes same meaning as it contains both expressions, a negation for the right to be worshipped from everything else besides Allah, and affirmation is for Allah, the Majestic and Perfect.


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

First Principle – Signs of Allah – Part 3