CHAPTER 4 – THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

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Sheikh rahimullah has explained the three fundamental principles in general terms in previous chapters, but now explaining one by one in more detail with their evidences from Qur’an and Sunnah and from the signs in Allah’s creation. It is likewise obligatory to base creed and belief upon proofs from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah, from the signs within creation so that it firmly grounded and established in the heart to remove all doubts.

As for creed and belief based on incorrect suspicions, upon doubts, blind following and sayings of people, are short lived and they are totally open to be refuted.

Shaikh’s saying “So if it said to you” meaning: If you are asked about your LORD, and indeed it will be asked in world and hereafter, so it is essential that you have knowledge of your Lord, the Mighty and Majestic and that you respond with the correct response based upon certainty and clear proof.

These questions are one of the trials of the grave, because the grave is the first of the stages of the Hereafter. When the son of Adam dies and his soul departs and he is placed in his graver. The two angels who are charged with questioning come to him and ask him what he used to believe in in this world, who was his Lord, what was his religion and who was his Prophet.

If he gives a good answer, that is good, but if he does not answer them they inflict a severe and painful beating on him.  If he was one of the righteous, angels with white faces come to him, but if he was one of the evildoers, angels with dark faces come to him. This is the fitnah or tribulation that he suffers.  Ibn Hajar said:

The phrase “from the tribulation of the grave” means the questioning of the two angels.

(Fath al-Baari, 11/177)

And al-Mubaarakfoori said:

The tribulation of the grave” means confusion when answering the two angels. 

(Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, 9/328)

With regard to the questions that the angels will ask in the grave, this is explained clearly in the following hadeeth:

It was narrated that al-Bara’ (may Allah be pleased with him) said: We went out with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ for the funeral of a man from among the Ansaar. We came to the grave and when (the deceased) was placed in the lahd (grave), the Messenger of Allah ﷺ sat down and we sat around him, as if there were birds on our heads (i.e., quiet and still). In his hand he had a stick with which he was scratching the ground. Then he raised his head and said, “Seek refuge with Allah from the torment of the grave”, two or three times. Then he said,

“When the believing slave is about to depart this world and enter the Hereafter, there come down to him from heaven angels with white faces like the sun, and they sit around him as far as the eye can see. They bring with them shrouds from Paradise and perfumes from Paradise. Then the Angel of Death comes and sits by his head, and he says, ‘O good soul, come forth to forgiveness from Allah and His pleasure.’ Then it comes out easily like a drop of water from the mouth of a water skin. When he seizes it, they do not leave it in his hand for an instant before they take it and put it in that shroud with that perfume, and there comes from it a fragrance like the finest musk on the face of the earth. Then they ascend and they do not pass by any group of angels but they say, ‘Who is this good soul?’ and they say, ‘It is So and so the son of So and so, calling him by the best names by which he was known in this world, until they reach the lowest heaven. They ask for it to be opened to them and it is opened, and (the soul) is welcomed and accompanied to the next heaven by those who are closest to Allah, until they reach the seventh heaven. Then Allah says: ‘Record the book of My slave in ‘Illiyoon in the seventh heaven, and return him to the earth, for from it I created them, to it I will return them and from it I will bring them forth once again.’ So his soul is returned to his body and there come to him two angels who make him sit up and they say to him, ‘Who is your Lord?’ He says, ‘Allah.’ They say, ‘What is your religion?’ He says, ‘My religion is Islam.’ They say, ‘Who is this man who was sent among you?’ He says, ‘He is the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).’ They say, ‘What did you do?’ He says, ‘I read the Book of Allah and I believed in it.’ Then a voice calls out from heaven, ‘My slave has spoken the truth, so prepare for him a bed from Paradise and clothe him from Paradise, and open for him a gate to Paradise.’ Then there comes to him some of its fragrance, and his grave is made wide, as far as he can see. Then there comes to him a man with a handsome face and handsome clothes, and a good fragrance, who says, ‘Receive the glad tidings that will bring you joy this day.’ He says, ‘Who are you? Your face is a face which brings glad tidings.’ He says, ‘I am your righteous deeds.’ He says, ‘O Lord, hasten the Hour so that I may return to my family and my wealth.’

But when the disbelieving slave is about to depart this world and enter the Hereafter, there come down to him from heaven angels with black faces, bringing sackcloth, and they sit around him as far as the eye can see. Then the Angel of Death comes and sits by his head, and he says, ‘O evil soul, come forth to the wrath of Allah and His anger.’ Then his soul disperses inside his body, then comes out cutting the veins and nerves, like a skewer passing through wet wool. When he seizes it, they do not leave it in his hand for an instant before they take it and put it in that sackcloth, and there comes from it a stench like the foulest stench of a dead body on the face of the earth. Then they ascend and they do not pass by any group of angels but they say, ‘Who is this evil soul?’ and they say, ‘It is So and so the son of So and so, calling him by the worst names by which he was known in this world, until they reach the lowest heaven. They ask for it to be opened to them and it is not opened.” Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited (interpretation of the meaning):

“…. for them the gates of heaven will not be opened, and they will not enter Paradise until the camel goes through the eye of the needle ….”  (Al-A’raaf 7:40) 

He said: “Then Allah says, ‘Record the book of My slave in Sijjeen in the lowest earth, and return him to the earth, for from it I created them, to it I will return them and from it I will bring them forth once again.’ So his soul is cast down.”  Then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ recited the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“…. and whoever assigns partners to Allah, it is as if he had fallen from the sky, and the birds had snatched him, or the wind had thrown him to a far off place”  (Al-Hajj 22:31) 

He said: “Then his soul is returned to his body, and there come to him two angels who make him sit up and they say to him,

Who is your Lord?’ He says, ‘Oh, oh, I don’t know.’ They say, ‘What is your religion?’ He says, ‘Oh, oh, I don’t know.’ Then a voice calls out from heaven, ‘Prepare for him a bed from Hell and clothe him from Hell, and open for him a gate to Hell.’ Then there comes to him some of its heat and hot winds, and his grave is constricted and compresses him until his ribs interlock. Then there comes to him a man with an ugly face and ugly clothes, and a foul stench, who says, ‘Receive the bad news, this is the day that you were promised.’ He says, ‘Who are you? Your face is a face which forebodes evil.’ He says, ‘I am your evil deeds.’ He says, ‘O Lord, do not let the Hour come, do not let the Hour come.’”

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4753; Ahmad, 18063 – this version was narrated by him. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 1676. 

The correct view is that the two angels will only question the deceased in his grave about matters of Tawheed (monotheism) and ‘aqeedah (belief). This is quite clear. [1]

And Allah knows best.


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

[1] Excerpted, with some modifications, from: http://islamqa.com/en/

WHO IS IMAAM MUHAMMAD BIN ABDUL WAHAB RAHIMULLAH

Name: Muhammad        Father Name:  Abdul Wahab    Grandfather: Sulaymaan

Full Name:

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil Wahhaab ibn Sulaymaan ibn ‘Alee ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Raashid ibn Burayd ibn Muhammad ibn Musharraf ibn ‘Umar ibn Wahb ibn Tameem.

Birth:  

He was born in the town of ‘Uyaynah in the year 1115 AH in a house of knowledge and nobility and religion. He belongs to the tribe of Banu’ Tameem. His father was a great scholar and his grandfather Sulaymaan was the scholar of Najd in his time…

Education:

He was educated by his father in his homeland, Oyayna, a village located at Yamama in Najd, northwest to the city of Riyadh. He learnt to read the Qur’aan at a very early age and exerted himself in studies and advanced learning at the hands of his father, Shaikh Abdul Wahhab Ibn Sulaiman, who was a great jurisprudent and the Judge of Oyayna. He did self-study, was keen of reading hadith, mostly memorized the parts of books. He had great ability to absorb whatever he studied. In his achievements, he rewrote the books of Ibn e Tayymiah and Ibn e Qayyam.

Having attained puberty, the Shaikh traveled to Makkah and then to Medina to learn from learned personalities there. Then he went to Iraq (Basrah) to seek after knowledge. It was in Iraq that he started his mission. There he called the people to Tawheed and the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ). He announced that it was the duty of every Muslim to follow his or her religion (Islam) strictly in accordance with the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. He engaged in debates and discussion with scholars and thus became famous. However, some characterless scholars rebelled against him and he faced some harms and persecutions from them. So, he left Basrah moving towards Az-zubair, then to al-Ahsa, and then finally to Huraymela, where also he faced much suffering at the hands of the wicked because he enjoined the good and forbade the evil and persuaded the rulers to punish the criminals severely. So, some of them even attempted on his life, but Allah saved him. Then he moved to Oyayna, which was then governed by Prince Uthman Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muammar, who welcomed the Shaikh with hospitality and promised him all support and help in calling people to Islam.

Condition of the Muslims in Najd:

People in Najd at that time and in most of the Islamic world was (such that) it had been overcome by the appearance of innovations and polytheistic practices and superstitions and ignorance of the true reality of the correct religion (of Islam).

So Najd was filled with graves and trees and stones, which were worshipped besides Allah, and they would seek to draw close to them with various types of devotional acts (of worship).

And in this dark and oppressive environment, there emerged the da’wah (call) of the Shaykh rahimahullaah and he raised his voice with it (he called out openly with it) repudiating these polytheistic practices and innovations, calling the people to the tawheed with which Allah sent the Messenger sall Allahu ‘alaihi wasallam . So he encountered harms from the people which the callers to Allah like him (too) had encountered; and those whom Allah had given success in accepting the Truth followed him (the Imaam). The Shaikh turned to Jihad in 1158 A.H, he wrote to people to enter the field of Jihad and remove polytheism, which existed in their countries.

He, thus, strove in his preaching and Jihad for fifty years from 1158 A.H. until he died in 1206. He resorted to all methods of his mission – Jihad, preaching, resistance, debates and arguments until people adhered to obedience and demolished the domes and mosques built by them on the graves and agreed to run their affairs in accordance with Islamic Law, discarding all rules and laws which had been applied by their fathers and forefathers. Then after the death of the Shaikh, his sons, grandson and supporters continued his mission and struggle in the cause of Allah.

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Source:

1- Taken from the biography of Shaykh ul Islaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil Wahhaab, mentioned at the beginning of Sharh Thalaathat il Usool of Shaykh Muhammad Amaan al Jaamee rahimahullaah

2- www.ahya.org

3- Based on Lectures of Dr. Farhat Hashmi

4- Featured Images are designed by Sr. Shazia Nawaz