CHAPTER 4: 1ST PRINCIPLE – TYPES OF WORSHIP (AR-RAGHBAH, AR-RAHBAH, AL-KHUSHOO, AL-KHASHYAH)

WHAT IS FERVENT DESIRE (Ar-Raghbah) ? 

It is the love and desire to reach that which is beloved. The literal meaning of Fervent is to seek something with the intense desire, this is an adjective which is characterized by extreme emotions.

 دنیاوی امور کیلیئے پسندیدہ چیز تک پہنچنے کی محبت کو رغھبت کہتے ہیں۔ دینی لحاظ سے اللہ کی رضا، اُسکی خوشنودی اور اُسکا دیدار چاہنا ہے۔

WHAT IS DREAD (Ar-Rahbah) ?

It is the fear which causes one to flee away from the cause of fear and is accompanied by action. So it is feeling of fear but it can also be the desire to avoid something. For example, many people feel dread at the very thought of speaking in front of an audience. As a verb, dread means “to fear or not want something to happen,” like students who did not study and as a result, dread getting their graded tests back.

الرھبة ایسا خوف جو عمل سے جُڑا ہو، مثلاً مُردے کے خوف سے اُسکے جنازے میں شرکت نہ کرنا کہ یہ مُردہ مجھے مار دے گا۔ کسی بیوہ عورت کو ہر کام سے دور رکھنا کہ اِسکی وجہ سے دوسری کوئی عورت بیوہ ہو جائے گی۔

WHAT IS HUMILITY (Al-Khushoo) ?

Al-Khushoo’ is humility and submissiveness before the Greatness of Allaah, such that the person submits to whatever Allaah has pre-decreed and what He has ordained and commanded. This humility should be with lack of ego.

الخشوع ایسا کوف جسمیں تعظیم اور عزت شامل ہو۔ علم والا اور باعمل اِنسان اپنے رب کے سامنے ایسا خوف رکھتا ہے اور یہ انبیا کی صفات میں سے ہے کہ بندہ اپنے رب کے حضور عاجزی اِختیار کرے۔

EVIDENCES FROM QURAN:

The evidence for the fervent desire (ar-raghbah), dread (ar-rahbah) and reverence and humility (al-khushoo’) is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُواْ يُسَارِعُونَ فِى الْخَيْرَتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَباً وَرَهَباً وَكَانُواْ لَنَا خـشِعِينَ

“They used to hasten to acts of devotion and obedience to Allaah, and they used to worship Allaah upon love and desire, and upon fear, and were reverent and humble before Allaah”

(Surah An’mbiyaa: 90)

In this noble Aayah,  Allaah, the Most High, describes the most loyal and sincere of His servants as worshipping Allaah, the Most High, upon raghbah  and rahbah,  whist being humble and submissive to Him. The du’aa  (invocation) here covers both invoking Allaah through acts of worship, and supplication. So they call upon Allaah out of earnest desire for what is with Him, and hoping for His reward, whilst also fearing His punishment as a result of their sins. So the Believer should hasten to Allaah, the Most High, upon fear and earnest desire; with regard to actions of obedience his hope and earnest desire should predominate, so that he is keen to perform them and hopes that they will be accepted; and with regard to whenever he thinks of committing a sin, then fear should predominate so that he will flee away from doing it and be saved from its consequent punishment.

Some scholars say that the aspect of hope should predominate when a person is ill, and the aspect of fear when he is well. They say this since a person who is ill feels subdued and weakened and it may be that his appointed time is near, so that he may die, and he should do so whilst thinking good of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. But when healthy he is energetic and has hope of remaining for a long time, and this may lead him to be exuberant and carefree, so fear should predominate in order to be safe from that. It is also said that the earnest hope and fear should be equal so that his hope does not lead him to feel safe from Allaah, and his fear does not cause him to despair of Allah’s mercy, since both of these are evil and cause a person’s destruction.

WHAT IS AWE (Al-Khashyah) ?

Awe (al-khashyah)  is fear founded upon knowledge of the greatness of the One whom he fears, and the complete and perfect Sovereignty and Dominion that is only of Allaah Subhana Watallah.  It is something more particular than fear, and the difference between it and fear will become clear by giving an example: If you fear someone, but you do not know whether he is able to catch you or not, then this is fear (khawf).  But when you fear someone and know that he is fully able to seize hold of you then that is fear/dread (khashyah).  With regard to speech about the rulings for each class of fear/dread, then it is the same as for what has already been said with regard to reverential fear (khawf).

EVIDENCES FROM QURAN:

The evidence for awe/dread (al-khashyah) is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High:

فَلاَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِى

” fear them not, but fear Me۔”

(Surah Al-Baqarah :150)

It means enemies cannot be the greatest danger for the Muslims, while impiety and having no awe of Allah is the real danger. So do not fear the doubts that the unjust, stubborn people raise specially about the matters of religion and fear Him Alone. Indeed, Allah Alone deserves to be feared.


Related Links:

Introduction to Author – Imam Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahab

Al-Usool Ath-Thalatha

SOURCES:

ittibaa.com

Audio in Urdu: Dr. Farhat Hashmi – Al-Usul al-Thalathah

Arabic Text: Download Book-Al-Usul Al-Thalaathah

Explanation of Usool Ath Thalatha by Shaykh Uthaymeen

1ST CHAPTER OF BOOK:

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